Volume 9, Issue 2 e365
Advanced Review

Stem cells in skeletal muscle growth and regeneration in amniotes and teleosts: Emerging themes

Avnika A. Ruparelia

Avnika A. Ruparelia

Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

EMBL Australia, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Dhanushika Ratnayake

Dhanushika Ratnayake

Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

EMBL Australia, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Peter D. Currie

Corresponding Author

Peter D. Currie

Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

EMBL Australia, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Correspondence

Peter D. Currie, Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, Monash University, 18 Innovation Walk, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.

Email: [email protected]

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First published: 19 November 2019
Citations: 7
Avnika A. Ruparelia and Dhanushika Ratnayake contributed equally to this work.

Funding information: National Health and Medical Research Council, Grant/Award Numbers: APP1041885, APP1136567, APP1104190, APP1159278

Abstract

Skeletal muscle is a contractile, postmitotic tissue that retains the capacity to grow and regenerate throughout life in amniotes and teleost. Both muscle growth and regeneration are regulated by obligate tissue resident muscle stem cells. Given that considerable knowledge exists on the myogenic process, recent studies have focused on examining the molecular markers of muscle stem cells, and on the intrinsic and extrinsic signals regulating their function. From this, two themes emerge: firstly, muscle stem cells display remarkable heterogeneity not only with regards to their gene expression profile, but also with respect to their behavior and function; and secondly, the stem cell niche is a critical regulator of muscle stem cell function during growth and regeneration. Here, we will address the current understanding of these emerging themes with emphasis on the distinct processes used by amniotes and teleost, and discuss the challenges and opportunities in the muscle growth and regeneration fields.

This article is characterized under:

  • Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Tissue Stem Cells and Niches
  • Early Embryonic Development > Development to the Basic Body Plan
  • Vertebrate Organogenesis > Musculoskeletal and Vascular

Graphical Abstract

Muscle growth and regeneration is regulated by obligate tissue resident muscle stem cells. Here, we review the current understanding of the role of muscle stem cells in muscle growth, specifically discussing the distinct processes used by amniotes and teleosts, and in muscle regeneration, addressing the importance of muscle stem cell heterogeneity, and the niche.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article.