Volume 3, Issue 3 p. 256-268
Advanced Review

Microfabrication and nanotechnology in stent design

Adam W. Martinez

Adam W. Martinez

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology/Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA

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Elliot L. Chaikof

Corresponding Author

Elliot L. Chaikof

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology/Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA

Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

Wyss Institute of Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA

School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology/Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USASearch for more papers by this author
First published: 31 January 2011
Citations: 67

Abstract

Intravascular stents were first introduced in the 1980s as an adjunct to primary angioplasty for management of early complications, including arterial dissection, or treatment of an inadequate technical outcome due to early elastic recoil of the atherosclerotic lesion. Despite the beneficial effects of stenting, persistent high rates of restenosis motivated the design of drug-eluting stents for delivery of agents to limit the proliferative and other inflammatory responses within the vascular wall that contribute to the development of a restenotic lesion. These strategies have yielded a significant reduction in the incidence of restenosis, but challenges remain, including incomplete repair of the endothelium at the site of vascular wall injury that may be associated with a late risk of thrombosis. A failure of vessel wall healing has been attributed primarily to the use of polymeric stent coatings, but the effects of the eluted drug and other material properties or design features of the stent cannot be excluded. Improvements in stent microfabrication, as well as the introduction of alternative materials may help to address those limitations that inhibit stent performance. This review describes the application of novel microfabrication processes and the evolution of new nanotechnologies that hold significant promise in eliminating existing shortcomings of current stent platforms. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2011 3 256–268 DOI: 10.1002/wnan.123

This article is categorized under:

  • Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanomaterials and Implants